TEOTIHUACAN, GLORIOUS CITY OF GODS.

Religious metropolis of Mexico, it shined with incomparable brightness two millenniums ago. But their fall would be as brutal as their ascension was bright. The city that attracted to its sanctuaries to immense multitudes of pilgrims, it saw itself abandoned all of the sudden. Even today its end is as mysterious as their birth once was. According to mythology, the gods built their pyramids, at the time they created the Sun and the Moon pyramid, in the origin of the world.

In a great plain of the high plateau close to the valley of Mexico, an immense city elevated the most important of the Mid-American Pre-Columbine crowds: Tollan Teotihuacan “there where the men become Gods”. This is how the Aztecs respectfully called it, which like us, only met its majestic ruins. Its great extension –more than 30 kilometers squared-, of whatever remains of its monuments, its proportions, its beauty, and its disposition in space, confirmed it as the capital of an empire, its name, like a mythical place.

From the top of the pyramid of the Sun, the ruins of Teotihuacan seem to extend to the boundaries of the horizon. Even if it was buried three fourths, the City of the Gods reveals the basic structures of a sacred city, conceived and organized according to the strict laws of astronomic calculations.

Who founded, constructed and inhabited Teotihuacan? What kind preceding factors produced a civilization that emerged suddenly in a high plateau populated by peasant tribes, which rebelled unexpectedly, singular and superior in its ideas and accomplishments and impregnated however many civilizations followed? The answers to these questions are nothing but a contradicting hypothesis. It’s not enough anymore, like in the past, to speak of miracle happening from nothing at all.

First of all, the geographic situation reveals itself favorable to the expansion of the city. Teotihuacan occupied an excellent strategic position in the route that unites of natural form the valleys of Mexico City and Puebla, and that by the East, it reached the low and tropical lands of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in the current state of Veracruz. Its volcanic surroundings provided them with a great quantity of obsidian, prime matter of capital importance in the production of sculpted products, instruments and all kinds of utensils. Finally the valley dominated in alluvial deposits, very fertile with relative abundance of water. The zone was populated by indigenous peasants, probably the Otomies, which lived the adobe huts creating towns of one to three hundred people, perhaps even more.

Without a doubt, it was near one of those towns that the founders of Teotihuacan started probably to build with the pyramid of the Sun, the construction of what would be the most impressive of the ceremonial centers in ancient Mexico. This way, they implanted in an under developed zone of the high plateau, a great center of attraction, essentially religious, and with the authority of a theocratic government supported in a group of knowledge, some which possibly contributed to improve agriculture, specially with systematic practice of the irrigated land.

Regarding civilization itself, whose degree of perfection astonishes everyone since its early starts, we can’t say that it would proceed out of nothing at all, since before this culture another had developed that was just as enigmatic: the Olmecs were masterly sculptors of colossal heads or of small figures in the most beautiful and resistant jades, the Olmecs were also constructors. The ruins of La Venta, with their mounds aligned in connection with squared plazas, with the disposition of the ceremonial area in a central axis oriented in the North-South sense, present the fundamental scheme of the future Mid-American cities.

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